Desmond FitzGerald Photographs - UCD Digital Library
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Desmond FitzGerald Photographs

Abstract This collection of photographic prints forms part of the papers of Desmond FitzGerald (P80). The majority of theses photographs arise out of the Civil War but other smaller series relate to the aftermath of the Easter Rising and to the War of Independence. There are also other series of army portraits and of historical occasions photographs.

Date
1916/1932
Genre
Photographs
Extent
187 items
Type of resource
still image
Location of original
Original items located in UCD Archives.
Repository
UCD Archives
UCD Digital Library
Repository reference
P80/PH
Language
English
Biographical History
Desmond FitzGerald, christened Thomas Joseph, was born in London in 1888 of Irish emigrant parents. As a young man, an ardent interest in Ireland was reflected in his admiration for the poetry of W.B. Yeats and his learning the Irish language at the Gaelic League class in London, where he met his future wife Mabel Washington McConnell.
Mabel was born in Belfast on 4 July 1884. Her interest in politics and Irish nationalism, demonstrated initially as a student in Queen’s University Belfast, was reflected in her joining the Gaelic League while working as a secretary in London. Desmond and Mabel were married in 1911.
In 1913, Desmond and Mabel FitzGerald moved to Irish-speaking west Kerry, where their knowledge of the Irish language was extended further and political links were established with figures such as Ernest Blythe and The O’Rahilly. In January 1915, Desmond was expelled from county Kerry, having convinced the Royal Irish Constabulary that he was signalling to German submarines from his home on the western peninsula. His consequent move to Bray, county Wicklow, and the organisation of a branch of the Irish Volunteers was curtailed by his arrest and sentence to six month’s imprisonment for a speech discouraging recruitment to the British army. Desmond was released three weeks before the Easter Rising and was present in the General Post Office as a non-combatant. Imprisonment followed until mid-1917.
After his release from a further term of imprisonment in 1919, Desmond was appointed Director of Publicity for the Dáil Government. The Irish Bulletin was launched by him in November 1919 in order to offset the official British accounts of the political situation in Ireland. His editorial work resulted in yet another term of imprisonment, but release enabled him to participate in the Treaty negotiations.
With the resignation of the anti-Treaty members of government in January 1922, and the emergence of the Irish Free State, Desmond became Minister for External Affairs and represented Ireland at the Imperial Conferences and at the League of Nations throughout much of this period. He was appointed Minister for Defence in 1927, a post he held until the defeat of the government in the general election of 1932 and the coming of de Valera to power. After 1932, Desmond served as Opposition Deputy and Senator until 1943. He died in April 1947.
Custodial History
The papers of Desmond and Mabel FitzGerald were deposited by their children, particularly Dr Garret FitzGerald, in May 1987.
Scope and Content
This fine collection of photographic prints forms part of the papers of Desmond FitzGerald (P80). Although it has been catalogued separately, its relationship with its parent collection should not be overlooked. Desmond FitzGerald was responsible for propaganda during the War of Independence. As Minister for Foreign Affairs in the Provisional Government and Minister for External Affairs in the Executive Council of the Irish Free State, he was responsible for the work of their propaganda branch, the Publicity Department. Its director was Sean Lester. These photographs are to a very large extent related to the work of the Publicity Department. They must be viewed in relation to its work and in the context of a substantial amount of material in the FitzGerald papers, notably P80/14-P80/381.
The majority of theses photographs arise out of the Civil War (group 3). Two smaller series relate to the aftermath of the Easter Rising (group 1) and to the War of Independence (group 2). There are also two rather disjointed series which have been grouped as 4, Irish army portraits and panoramas, and 5, historical occasions and portraits. The photographs in groups 2 and 3 would have had obvious propaganda value and many were destined for publication. Others were never published. They are of interest not just because they are an extension of a large section of the FitzGerald papers but also because they contain historical and social information in what is often a vivid, poignant or artistic form.
The photographs in this collection come from a variety of sources: photographic studios, photographic agencies and the press. The majority of photographs in the largest group, 3, were taken by W.D. Hogan of Henry Street, Dublin, who was possibly commissioned by the Publicity Department to maintain a public record of the Civil War. From the system of numbering on the back of the photographs in groups1 and 2, it is clear that what is extant in this collection must represent a tiny fraction of the photographs which were taken at the time.
Aftermath of the Easter Rising, 1916 : The photographs in group 1 form a series and are all the work of one very fine photographer [name unknown]. They were all taken on a wet and murky day in the Sackville Street, Henry Street and Middle Abbey Street area. Although they are concerned with buildings destroyed during the Rising, some of them are quite exquisite both in detail and atmosphere.
War of Independence, 1920 : This small group of photographs has obvious propaganda value. They document some of the well know incidents of the War of Independence although all of the ‘atrocities’ illustrated here are those involving the Auxiliaries and Black and Tans.. The incidents documented include Kilmichael (November 1920), Cork City (December 1920), the destruction of creameries and the visit of the British Labour Party Commission (December 1920) to investigate the atrocities and reprisals in Ireland. All of the photographs in group 2 have captions which assist in identification.
Civil War, 1922 : This is the largest group of photographs in the collection. Most of them are the work of W.D. Hogan (with the exception of some in sub-groups 3.8 and 3.9, and all of 3.10). One must assume that Hogan was commissioned to photograph events during the Civil War from an Irish Free State perspective. The resulting work tends to reflect either anti-Treaty destruction or Irish Free State military success. Hogan was probably not in the firing line on many occasions although there are some action shorts (notably P80/PH/23-24) and photographs of the Irish Free State army advancing on land and by sea (sub-groups 3.2 and 3.3). Much of his work includes the presence of civilians, suggesting that major confrontation was over when he was in action. The civilian presence often provides photographs with interesting vignettes particularly in the form of small boys who seemed to materialise when the photographer was around. The civilian presence is also important from a propaganda viewpoint as inevitably people appear supportive and approving of the Irish Free State troops. It must be noted that a strict dress code does not appear to have been adhered to by the early Free State Army. Troops often wear a mixture of military and civilian dress, therefore distinguishing soldiers from civilians is often a matter of guesswork. There is also evidence that the Irish Free State army was reinforced on occasion by armed youths (P80/PH/88, 90), probably unofficially. These photographs in 3 have been grouped into loosely described subject categories because it would be impossible to establish any chronology among them and most have no captions. There are some coherent categories, notably 3.1, the destruction of the Four Courts, 3.3 coastal landings and 3.10, Belfast pogroms.
Groups 4 and 5 : The photographs in 4, Irish army portraits and panoramas, and 5, historical occasions and portraits, are rather mixed. P80/PH/160 is an interesting panorama of the first IRA unit in Irish Free State Army uniform (4 February 1922) and P80/PH/162 is a fine group photograph by the Lafayette studios of the officers and men of the Army Equitation School, possibly taken at the time Desmond FitzGerald was Minister for Defence (1927-32).
Arrangement
Photographs which appear related are usually listed in sequence. If separated, cross references are used to help their integration.
Note
This collection contains images which may cause distress.
Subjects
Ireland--History--Easter Rising, 1916
Ireland--History--War of Independence, 1919-1921
Ireland--History--Civil War, 1922-1923
Ireland--Politics and government--1910-1921
Ireland--Politics and government--1922-
Ireland--History--Civil War, 1922-1923--Propaganda
Ireland--History--War of Independence, 1919-1921--Propaganda
Irish Free State. Army
War damage--Ireland--1910-1930
Buildings--Ireland--1910-1930
People--Ireland--1910-1930
Soldiers--Ireland--1910-1930

Related Material
W.D. Hogan photographs in the National Photographic Archive, Meeting House Square, Temple Bar, Dublin 2.
Bibliography
Desmond FitzGerald, Desmond's Rising. Memoirs 1913 to Easter 1916, Liberties Press, 2006.

Record source
Finding aid encoded in EAD by UCD Digital Library - DM 26 February 2013.

Finding aid author
Ailsa Holland

1. Aftermath of the Easter Rising, 1916

2. War of Independence, 1920

3. Civil War, 1922

1. Destruction of the Four Courts

2. Army actions

3. Costal landings

4. Army and civilian response

5. Army at ease and on parade

6. City, town and country

7. Destruction of buildings

8. Civilian groups and portraits

9. Army and civilian casualties

10. Belfast pogroms

4. Irish Army portraits and panoramas

5. Historical occasions and portraits


1.   Aftermath of the Easter Rising, 1916

1 The General Post Office showing extensive damage : view from Henry Street   [View...]
2 The General Post Office showing extensive damage : façade view   [View...]
3 A soldier on duty outside a ruined building   [View...]
4 Demolition work on a building in Middle Abbey Street   [View...]
5 Demolition of part of a building in Middle Abbey Street   [View...]
6 A group of people standing at the junction of Westmoreland Street and Carlisle Bridge which is showing extensive damage   [View...]
7 Liberty Hall showing extensive structural and artillery damage on one side   [View...]
8 Soldiers outside a restaurant in ruins   [View...]
9 Soldiers in defensive position in the doorway and at a window of a building in ruins   [View...]
10 Badly damaged buildings and people looking among the ruins   [View...]
11 Man viewing the interior of a badly damaged building   [View...]
12 Interior of a completely gutted building   [View...]
13 Group of men outside a row of badly damaged and demolished buildings   [View...]
14 Interior of a building which has been completely gutted by fire   [View...]

2.   War of Independence, 1920

15 Burned out building   [View...]
16 House smashed by Auxilliaries after Kilmichael ambush   [View...]
17 Patrick Street, Cork, Monday morning after burning   [View...]
18 Labour Commission and Cork LCC, Town Hall, Cork   [View...]
19 Creamery at hospital, Labour Commission’s visit   [View...]
20 Labour Commission at Misses Ryans' farm, near Limerick Junction   [View...]
21 Labour Commission, interior of creamery, Ballymacelligott   [View...]

3.   Civil War, 1922

1.   Destruction of the Four Courts

22 The Four Courts façade : view across Liffey from Merchants’ Quay   [View...]
23 A group of Irish Free State Army soldiers firing artillery on the Four Courts   [View...]
24 A group of Irish Free State Army soldiers on the point of firing artillery at the Four Courts   [View...]
25 The Four Courts : view across the roof tops of Usher’s Quay and Usher’s Island   [View...]
26 The Public Record Office and the Four Courts : view across the roof tops of Usher’s Quay and Usher’s Island   [View...]
27 The Four Courts façade : view from Merchants’ Quay showing extensive damage   [View...]
28 The Four Courts façade : view across the Liffey from Merchants’ Quay showing damage   [View...]
29 The Four Courts façade : from Merchants’ Quay showing damage   [View...]
30 The Four Courts façade : view from Merchants’ Quay showing damage to the west wing   [View...]
31 The Four Courts : view of the west wing from Merchants’ Quay   [View...]
32 The Four Courts : ruined interior   [View...]
33 A gentleman standing in the ruins of part of the Four Courts   [View...]
34 The Four Courts Hotel on Inns Quay with Irish Free State Army troops   [View...]
35 People viewing the Four Courts, possibly after the surrender of the republicans   [View...]

2.   Army actions

36 Front porch of an imposing building which has been heavily fortified with sandbags   [View...]
37 Free State Army soldiers in defensive position beside an imposing building   [View...]
38 Irish Free State Army soldiers crouched in firing position with rifles pointed   [View...]
39 An Irish Free State Army soldier in firing position inside a badly damaged house   [View...]
40 Irish Free State Army members in offensive position on the stairs of a building, possibly a private house   [View...]
41 An Irish Free State Army soldier sitting on guard with his rifle on the breached wall of a large building   [View...]
42 Irish Free State Army soldiers standing in defensive position facing a fortified wall   [View...]
43 Irish Free State Army soldiers adopting defensive positions on a country road   [View...]
44 Free State Army soldiers in defensive position along a bank at the side of a road   [View...]
45 An Irish Free State Army soldier lying on a road aiming a weapon   [View...]
46 Irish Free State Army soldiers grouped behind heavy field artillery   [View...]
47 An Irish Free State Army soldier examining the results of an explosion   [View...]
48 Irish Free State Army soldiers marching in two columns along a country road   [View...]
49 Irish Free State Army soldiers walking and riding down a deserted road   [View...]
50 Irish Free State Army soldiers crouched in defensive position at a barricade on a country bridge   [View...]
51 Irish Free State Army soldiers in a personnel carrier driving past the barricade on a bridge   [View...]
52 Irish Free State Army officers leaving a building, including Michael Brennan and Barra O’Brien   [View...]

3.   Costal landings

53 A ship lined with Irish Free State Army soldiers docked at the quayside   [View...]
54 Irish Free State Army officers and a ship’s officer embarking on board ship   [View...]
55 Free State Army soldiers standing on a lifeboat and lining the rails on board ship   [View...]
56 A group of sailors and Irish Free State Army officers on board ship looking towards the distance   [View...]
57 A group of Irish Free State Army soldiers sitting on a bench on board ship   [View...]
58 Irish Free State Army officers on board ship deep in conversation   [View...]
59 Irish Free State Army members in defensive positions on board ship   [View...]
60 An Irish Free State Army officer on board ship   [View...]
61 Sailors hanging mattresses over the railing outside the wheelhouse   [View...]
62 Coastline with buildings in the foreground : view taken from on board a ship   [View...]

4.   Army and civilian response

63 Irish Free State Army soldiers sitting and reclining on the road   [View...]
64 A truck load of Irish Free State Army soldiers on the main street of a country town   [View...]
65 A large, jubilant group of Irish Free State Army soldiers and civilians   [View...]
66 A large group of Irish Free State Army soldiers and civilians   [View...]
67 Free State Army soldiers walking along a country road with guns   [View...]
68 An Irish Free State Army soldier helped by civilians filling in craters in a road   [View...]
69 Trucks passing by a barricade on a bridge over a river   [View...]
70 A truck containing Irish Free State soldiers and a mattress, driven by a man in civilian dress   [View...]
71 Irish Free State Army soldiers standing at a building which has suffered artillery damage   [View...]
72 An Irish Free State Army soldier standing on guard with his rifle on the breached wall of a large building   [View...]
73 Irish Free State Army soldiers seated and standing in the street of a city or town   [View...]
74 Irish Free State Army officers and men outside the Royal Hotel   [View...]
75 Irish Free State Army officers standing at ease and smiling outside a heavily fortified building   [View...]
76 An Irish Free State Army personnel carrier containing two soldiers and a machine gun   [View...]

5.   Army at ease and on parade

77 A man in civilian clothes offering cigarettes to Irish Free State Army soldiers in a truck   [View...]
78 Irish Free State Army officers and men standing beside a personnel carrier   [View...]
79 Irish Free State Army soldiers at the rear of an army mobile canteen   [View...]
80 Irish Free State Army soldiers riding on a donkey cart   [View...]
81 Irish Free State Army soldiers enjoying a cup of tea from a mobile canteen parked at the entrance to a building   [View...]
82 Irish Free State Army soldiers eating a meal reclining on the ground outside tents   [View...]
83 Irish Free State Army soldiers standing in formation with an army band of pipers   [View...]
84 Irish Free State Army marching in formation in a field   [View...]

6.   City, town and country

85 The intersection between Henry Street and Mary Street, Dublin   [View...]
86 A personnel carrier containing a group of Irish Free State Army soldiers drawing up outside the Belfast Banking Company in College Green, Dublin   [View...]
87 Irish Free State Army soldiers having alighted from a personnel carrier outside the Belfast Banking Company building in College Green, Dublin   [View...]
88 A young man with a rifle in firing position at a makeshift barrier   [View...]
89 A barricade consisting largely of sacks and bags bearing the legends Evening Telegraph and Freemans Journal   [View...]
90 Two young boys, one with a rifle, protecting a bread van   [View...]
91 A man in civilian clothes standing beside an armoured car in a city street   [View...]
92 A lengthy queue of men entering a building   [View...]
93 A barricade across a cobbled street   [View...]
94 A wide street on the outskirts of a country town   [View...]
95 A street in a country town with a series of burned out building in the background   [View...]
96 A burned out tender on a country road being examined by a man in civilian dress   [View...]

7.   Destruction of buildings

97 Gutted interior of a building   [View...]
98 Ruined cupola of the rotunda of a building   [View...]
99 Gutted interior of a church   [View...]
100 Front façade of a burned out barracks   [View...]
101 Rear façade of a three storey, burned-out barracks   [View...]
102 Rear façade of a substantial country mansion completely gutted by fire   [View...]
103 Ruins of a building showing the remains of two floors   [View...]
104 Interior of a room containing debris and bits of metal   [View...]
105 A printing press which has suffered extensive damage   [View...]
106 Two men in makeshift uniform contemplating the ruins of some machinery   [View...]
107 Façade of a four storey prison   [View...]
108 Interior of a prison showing three floors   [View...]

8.   Civilian groups and portraits

109 A young girl wearing an ill-fitting coat   [View...]
110 A little boy holding a sword and scabbard   [View...]
111 A woman in a hat pushing her bicycle along an overgrown country lane   [View...]
112 Two girls carrying a large wooden pallet around the corner of a cobbled street   [View...]
113 A civilian pipe and drum band led by a mace bearer   [View...]
114 A group of civilians standing on a railway station platform   [View...]
115 A large group of civilians congregating outside a building   [View...]
116 A group of civilians, one is holding a tricolour   [View...]

9.   Army and civilian casualties

117 An Irish Free State Army soldier propped up on pillows in a hospital bed   [View...]
118 An Irish Free State Army soldier propped up on pillows in a hospital bed with folded arms   [View...]
119 An Irish Free State Army soldier propped up on pillows with an open book on his lap   [View...]
120 An Irish Free State Army soldier sitting in a wicker chair   [View...]
121 Irish Free State Army soldiers carrying a coffin draped in the tricolour along the wet street of a country town   [View...]
122 Members of a medical corps tending the leg of a wounded man   [View...]
123 A group of men in civilian clothes and others in medical corps uniform outside a building drinking tea and smoking   [View...]
124 Four men laid out on a series of tables   [View...]
125 A man lying with closed eyes in a bed   [View...]
126 A dead baby laid out on a bed with his hands folded on his chest   [View...]
127 A dead baby laid out on a bed   [View...]
128 A boy laid out in a bed with an iron bedstead and covered with a fine quilt   [View...]
129 A boy lying in bed   [View...]
130 A dead baby lying on a wooden table   [View...]
131 A badly burned body in a coffin   [View...]

10.   Belfast pogroms

132 Four boys, possibly brothers   [View...]
133 A little girl with bare feet being tended by a woman   [View...]
134 A woman sitting on a trunk holding a baby in her arms   [View...]
135 A woman sitting on a trunk with her two children   [View...]
136 A group of people, mainly children   [View...]
137 A group of people, mainly children   [View...]
138 A boy with bare feet standing on the window ledge of a burned out house   [View...]
139 A girl leaning up against the door of a terraced house   [View...]
140 A family loading furniture onto a handcart outside a terraced house   [View...]
141 A large group of people standing in front of a wooden hut with a sign Athletic Club   [View...]
142 A group of people standing in front of a wooden hut   [View...]
143 Badly damaged terraced houses   [View...]
144 A large group of people, mainly children, standing in a street of terraced houses   [View...]
145 A street of terraced houses   [View...]
146 A terraced house   [View...]
147 Interior of a house showing extensive damage   [View...]
148 Interior of a substantial building which has been completely gutted by fire   [View...]
149 Interior of a house showing extensive damage   [View...]
150 Interior of a house showing damage to the walls, furnishings, and a statue   [View...]
151 A completely burned house at the corner of Saunderson Street   [View...]
152 A burned out and possibly looted shop   [View...]
153 A burned out and possibly looted shop   [View...]
154 A statue of the Virgin Mary on a terraced house in Belfast   [View...]
155 Burned out terraced houses in Antigua Street   [View...]
156 Burned out terraced houses in Antigua Street   [View...]
157 Burned out terraced houses in Saunderson Street   [View...]
158 A street of terraced houses   [View...]
159 A terraced house with damaged door and window   [View...]

4.   Irish Army portraits and panoramas

160 The Guards, Beggars Bush   [View...]
161 D company, 1st battalion, Dublin Guards   [View...]
162 The officers and men of the Irish Army Equitation School   [View...]
163 General Richard Mulcahy, Chief of Staff, Irish Free State Army : three quarter length portrait   [View...]
164 General Richard Mulcahy, Chief of Staff, Irish Free State Army : full length portrait   [View...]
165 General Eoin O’Duffy, GOC, South Western Command : three quarter length portrait   [View...]
166 General Eoin O’Duffy, GOC, South Western Command : three quarter length portrait   [View...]
167 A young man in uniform : three quarter length studio portrait   [View...]

5.   Historical occasions and portraits

168 A meeting of Dail Eireann in the Mansion House   [View...]
169 A group of men and women walking, including Ernest Blythe and Harry Boland   [View...]
170 A man in a bowler hat with a cigar paying a taxi man   [View...]
171 Two men, possibly leaving 10 Downing Street   [View...]
172 Two men looking out of the window of a cab   [View...]
173 The funeral of Arthur Griffith passing along O’Connell Street from O’Connell Bridge   [View...]
174 Michael Collins addressing a small group of hurlers   [View...]
175 Kevin Barry : half length studio portrait   [View...]
176 Eoin MacNeill : half length studio portrait   [View...]
177 A young man with handlebar moustache : head and shoulders portrait   [View...]
178 Colonel Richard O’Sullivan shaking hands from his sick bed with Piaras Beaslai   [View...]
179 National University, Dublin Ireland   [View...]

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